Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you’re not a robot. Good Housekeeping participates in various affiliate marketing programs, which means we may get paid commissions on editorially chosen products purchased through our links to retailer sites. It has how Ice Cream Cars Make There Money suggested that Ice cube be merged into this article. This article is about water ice. For the broader concept of “ices” as used in the planetary sciences, see Volatiles. This article needs additional citations for verification.
The properties of ice vary substantially with temperature, purity and other factors. Ice is water frozen into a solid state. In the Solar System, ice is abundant and occurs naturally from as close to the Sun as Mercury to as far away as the Oort cloud objects. Beyond the Solar System, it occurs as interstellar ice.
It may also be deposited directly by water vapor, as happens in the formation of frost. Ice is used in a variety of ways, including cooling, winter sports and ice sculpture. As a naturally occurring crystalline inorganic solid with an ordered structure, ice fits the properties of a mineral. An unusual property of ice frozen at atmospheric pressure is that the solid is approximately 8.
The density of ice is 0. The effect of expansion during freezing can be dramatic, and ice expansion is a basic cause of freeze-thaw weathering of rock in nature and damage to building foundations and roadways from frost heaving. It has been argued that without this property, natural bodies of water would freeze, in some cases permanently, from the bottom up, resulting in a loss of bottom-dependent animal and plant life in fresh and sea water. Compared with water, this absorption is shifted toward slightly lower energies. Thus, ice appears blue, with a slightly greener tint than liquid water.
Since absorption is cumulative, the color effect intensifies with increasing thickness or if internal reflections cause the light to take a longer path through the ice. Other colors can appear in the presence of light absorbing impurities, where the impurity is dictating the color rather than the ice itself. For the high speed train, see ICE 4. Ice may be any one of the 18 known solid crystalline phases of water, or in an amorphous solid state at various densities. Most liquids under increased pressure freeze at higher temperatures because the pressure helps to hold the molecules together. C, as shown in the phase diagram below. The melting of ice under high pressures is thought to contribute to the movement of glaciers.
Ice, water, and water vapour can coexist at the triple point, which is exactly 273. Unlike most other solids, ice is difficult to superheat. Subjected to higher pressures and varying temperatures, ice can form in 18 separate known crystalline phases. Water in the interstellar medium is dominated by amorphous ice, making it likely the most common form of water in the universe.
Log-lin pressure-temperature phase diagram of water. The Roman numerals correspond to some ice phases listed below. Amorphous ice is an ice lacking crystal structure. Virtually all ice in the biosphere is ice Ih, with the exception only of a small amount of ice Ic. A metastable cubic crystalline variant of ice. The oxygen atoms are arranged in a diamond structure. It is produced at temperatures between 130 and 220 K, and can exist up to 240 K, when it transforms into ice Ih.
A rhombohedral crystalline form with highly ordered structure. When heated, it undergoes transformation to ice III. A tetragonal crystalline ice, formed by cooling water down to 250 K at 300 MPa. Least dense of the high-pressure phases. It can be formed by heating high-density amorphous ice slowly at a pressure of 810 MPa. It does not form easily without a nucleating agent. Formed by cooling water to 253 K at 500 MPa.
Most complicated structure of all the phases. Formed by cooling water to 270 K at 1. The hydrogen atoms’ positions are disordered. The hydrogen bonds form two interpenetrating lattices.
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