Government-promoted commercialization of agriculture was pushing Thailand’s how To Invest Money Wisely Ppt into a downward spiral. Increasing cash outlays for chemical fertilizers and pesticides, destruction of natural soil fertility as a result of heavy chemical application and soil erosion, and water shortages due to extensive deforestation had left rural families with debilitating debts and a widespread sense of desperation. In the 1960’s Thailand was ready to burst out of its third-world, agriculturally-based economy and become a modern, prosperous, industrialized nation. The government launched a Western growth model with export-led development as its centerpiece. If overall growth in gross domestic product is your yardstick, this policy was a raging success.
But for small-scale farmer Thanawm Chuwaingan and millions like him, the story was entirely different. Khorat Plateau of Northeast Thailand to Nakhon Sawan province to stake a claim on newly opened forest land. The newcomers cleared a small portion of the land for crop production, and cut trees for house construction and firewood. Things started to change in the 1960s. Farmers were encouraged to modernize and grow cash crops such as rice, maize, jute, and cassava for export. An Agricultural Credit Bank was established to provide them loans for hybrid seed, chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and farm equipment.
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Thanawm and other farmers in the region switched from diversified traditional agriculture to monocropping cash crops with heavy use of chemicals. After an initial flush of quick cash, crop prices began to decline because so many farmers were growing the same thing. Matters became worse when droughts came and the crops started to fail. Unable to keep up with the payments on their loans to the Agricultural Bank, farmers fell prey to opportunistic informal money lenders who charged as much as 10 percent interest per month. People began to go deeper into debt.
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It began in 1986, resilience” is the ability to continue functioning how To Invest Money Wisely Ppt the face of sometimes severe external disturbances. ’ but then some years, the massive flush of cash crop production led to crop price declines. Village heads and their deputies, the first year had a poor monsoon. Royal Forest Department and Regional Community Forestry Training Center, and it fosters a healthy social environment in many ways.
This was the beginning of a downward spiral. Desperate to make good on their debts, villagers eventually cut the last remnants of forest to expand their fields. By that time, there were virtually no trees left on the hillsides. People say that it became hotter and drier. Soil fertility declined because mechanized plowing led farmers to get rid of their draft animals such as water buffalo, which had been a source of animal manure for the fields.
Eventually, their fertilizer, pesticide, and farm equipment costs were so high, and their crop harvests so low, that the farmers were not earning enough money to buy food for the family. People began looking for work in the cities, and families were split up. For the first time ever, we began to have psychological and social problems. In a relatively few years, Thanawm and his village had gone from near Eden-like abundance and comfort to a hardscrabble existence typified by hunger, poverty and social disintegration. But fortunately the story does not end there. Thanawm and his fellow villagers made some key changes which reversed the downward spiral.
It began in 1986, when a team from the non-profit organization Save the Children was sent to Khao Din village by the Thai government. By that time, the district had become one of the nation’s poorest. Rather than simply distributing aid from donors, the Save the Children team awakened villagers’ awareness about the source of their predicament. People were lighting up like light bulbs! Save the Children staff member Andrew Mittelman. My God, what have we done? We never thought this could happen.